Monday, 22 December 2014

How to choose a wheelchair

Welcome to Episode 1 of a How To video series presented by National Center on Health, Physical Activity and Disability (NCHPAD) with the help of Mary Allison Cook, a wheelchair user for the past 23 years. She will lead us through a number of How To's for the wheelchair user. In this video you will learn the important aspects of how to choose a wheelchair that is right for you.

Saturday, 22 November 2014

Learn everything about Spinal Cord Injuries

Recognising the need to disseminate information about comprehensive management of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) took the initiative to develop, a web-based teaching and educational resource. specifically addresses the current lack of professional development opportunities for medical and paramedical professionals involved in SCI Management due to the limited access of up-to-date SCI training and learning materials/ resources. The content has been developed by 332 leading SCI professionals and educationists from around the world and reflects realities in both high and low resource settings. The content has been informed by the most up-to-date SCI research and as such will be of relevance to students, those new to the field of SCI and to SCI practitioners everywhere. The Asian Spinal Cord Network (ASCoN), Indian Spinal Injuries Centre (ISIC), Livability and the Lifetime Care and Support Scheme partnered with ISCoS to develop this resource, with financial support from Access to Health Care.

Monday, 20 October 2014

The milestones of sexual development model


The men and women who come to us for help are profoundly vulnerable. They feel broken, unable to enjoy the basic human pleasure of being sexual. Clinically, cases which first appear to be simple dysfunction may later reveal extensive defects in sexual development. The focus of this article is on deeply troubled men and women with intrapsychic obstacles to intimacy stemming from family-of-origin issues.

Some of our most blocked patients experienced sexual abuse, and appropriately staged treatment for them is well defined (Maltz, 2001). However, perhaps two thirds of them were not sexually abused, yet standard behavioral exercises are too advanced and inappropriate for them. How can we identify and help these clients, whose sexuality never developed normally or whose sexual identity never evolved?

Read the rest here.

Monday, 13 October 2014

Does strength training improve running performance?

While there has been considerable research on the effects of weight training on endurance performance, there has not been a large amount of research that has actually measured changes in performance when resistance training is added to an endurance athletes training program.  Generally those research studies that have examined markers of performance such as VO2max, lactate threshold, or running economy find that weight training is a benefit to endurance athletes.  Research that evaluates actual performance changes supports this view and indicates that resistance training is likely to improve performance, especially at running distances of 10k and less.  As the competitive distance increases it is likely that resistance training has a decreasing effect on performance. 

Considering all the data, my recommendation is for the addition of 1-2 days per week of resistance training to your training program, especially if you typically compete at distances of 10k or less.

American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention

ACS Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention
Download Printable Version [PDF]

Full details of the ACS guidelines ranging from whole grains, fats, alcohol, and daily goals for exercise—to the lifestyle changes that may help prevent breast, colon and other specific cancers.
  • American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention
  • Summary of the ACS Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • ACS Guidelines for Nutrition and Physical Activity
  • Food additives, safety, and organic foods
  • Diet and activity factors that affect risks for certain cancers
  • Common questions about diet and cancer

Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment

Mishra SI1, Scherer RW, Snyder C, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;8:CD008465. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008465.pub2.

Wednesday, 1 October 2014

Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices

Gabriel DA1, Kamen G, Frost G.

Sports Med. 2006;36(2):133-49.


It is generally accepted that neural factors play an important role in muscle strength gains. This article reviews the neural adaptations in strength, with the goal of laying the foundations for practical applications in sports medicine and rehabilitation. An increase in muscular strength without noticeable hypertrophy is the first line of evidence for neural involvement in acquisition of muscular strength. The use of surface electromyographic (SEMG) techniques reveal that strength gains in the early phase of a training regimen are associated with an increase in the amplitude of SEMG activity. This has been interpreted as an increase in neural drive, which denotes the magnitude of efferent neural output from the CNS to active muscle fibres. However, SEMG activity is a global measure of muscle activity. Underlying alterations in SEMG activity are changes in motor unit firing patterns as measured by indwelling (wire or needle) electrodes. Some studies have reported a transient increase in motor unit firing rate. Training-related increases in the rate of tension development have also been linked with an increased probability of doublet firing in individual motor units. A doublet is a very short interspike interval in a motor unit train, and usually occurs at the onset of a muscular contraction. Motor unit synchronisation is another possible mechanism for increases in muscle strength, but has yet to be definitely demonstrated. There are several lines of evidence for central control of training-related adaptation to resistive exercise. Mental practice using imagined contractions has been shown to increase the excitability of the cortical areas involved in movement and motion planning. However, training using imagined contractions is unlikely to be as effective as physical training, and it may be more applicable to rehabilitation. Retention of strength gains after dissipation of physiological effects demonstrates a strong practice effect. Bilateral contractions are associated with lower SEMG and strength compared with unilateral contractions of the same muscle group. SEMG magnitude is lower for eccentric contractions than for concentric contractions. 

However, resistive training can reverse these trends. The last line of evidence presented involves the notion that unilateral resistive exercise of a specific limb will also result in training effects in the unexercised contralateral limb (cross-transfer or cross-education). Peripheral involvement in training-related strength increases is much more uncertain. Changes in the sensory receptors (i.e. Golgi tendon organs) may lead to disinhibition and an increased expression of muscular force. Agonist muscle activity results in limb movement in the desired direction, while antagonist activity opposes that motion. Both decreases and increases in co-activation of the antagonist have been demonstrated. A reduction in antagonist co-activation would allow increased expression of agonist muscle force, while an increase in antagonist co-activation is important for maintaining the integrity of the joint. Thus far, it is not clear what the CNS will optimise: force production or joint integrity. The following recommendations are made by the authors based on the existing literature. Motor learning theory and imagined contractions should be incorporated into strength-training practice. Static contractions at greater muscle lengths will transfer across more joint angles. Submaximal eccentric contractions should be used when there are issues of muscle pain, detraining or limb immobilisation. The reversal of antagonists (antagonist-to-agonist) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation contraction pattern would be useful to increase the rate of tension development in older adults, thus serving as an important prophylactic in preventing falls. When evaluating the neural changes induced by strength training using EMG recording, antagonist EMG activity should always be measured and evaluated.

PMID: 16464122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Life's Greatest Miracle

A sequel to one of the most popular NOVAs of all time, "Miracle of Life," this Emmy Award-winning program tracks human development from embryo to newborn using the extraordinary microimagery of Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson.

Tuesday, 30 September 2014


The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a nationally and internationally-recognized education program that translates science and health for non-experts. In addition to genetics, we address all areas of life science and health as well as other scientific fields.

The GSLC's websites are one of the most used science sites on the Internet.  In 2013, they received almost 20 million visits, which came from virtually every country in the world.

Sunday, 21 September 2014

Medical Embryology - Development of the Pharyngeal Arches

This video goes in to the pharyngeal arches, an odd group of folds that contribute a variety of structures to the face and neck. We discuss the arches and their muscular, bony, and nervous features. We then talk about the grooves (outside) and pouches (inside) that create the ears and various glands. I hope you find it helpful!

Friday, 19 September 2014

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence


  • Over 3500 articles reviewed
  • 1400+ articles rated
  • 107 Outcome Measures assessed (Download for Free)
  • 80+ researchers, clinicians and trainees from 5 different countries involved in updating the key topic areas in SCIRE, including New Chapters on Economic Evaluation of Spinal Cord Injury and Sexual and Reproductive Health and SCI

Facts about mitochondrial myopathies

Dear Friends:

if you are reading this booklet, it’s probably because you’ve just received a very bewildering diagnosis: mitochondrial myopathy. What is a mitochondrial myopathy, and what does the term mean? These are questions my wife, Jennifer, and I struggled with when our son, Michael, got his diagnosis in 1993.Mitochondrial myopathies have many different faces. As you will read in this booklet, dozens of varieties of mitochondrial diseases have been identified, with a complex array of symptoms. Some symptoms can be so mild that they’re hardly noticeable, while others are life-threatening.

Michael’s disease causes muscle weakness, muscle cramping, fatigue, lack of endurance and poor balance. You or your family member may have similar symptoms, yet each case is unique.

Continue reading on Muscular Dystrophy Association website.

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)


The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) is an independent global health research center at the University of Washington that provides rigorous and comparable measurement of the world's most important health problems and evaluates the strategies used to address them. IHME makes this information freely available so that policymakers have the evidence they need to make informed decisions about how to allocate resources to best improve population health.


IHME aspires to make available to the world high-quality information on population health, its determinants, and the performance of health systems. We seek to achieve this directly, by catalyzing the work of others, and by training researchers as well as policymakers. 


Our mission is to improve the health of the world’s populations by providing the best information on population health.


IHME’s research is organized around answering three critical questions that are essential to understanding the current state of population health and the strategies necessary to improve it.

What are the world's major health problems?
How well is society addressing these problems?
How do we best dedicate resources to maximize health improvement?

Monday, 8 September 2014

World Physical Therapy Day

Why World Physical Therapy Day matters

In 1996, WCPT designated 8th September as World Physical Therapy Day. This is the date WCPT was founded in 1951.

The day marks the unity and solidarity of the global physical therapy community. It is an opportunity to recognise the work that physical therapists do for their patients and community. Using World Physical Therapy Day as a focus, WCPT aims to support member organisations in their efforts to promote the profession and advance their expertise.

Reports from around the world indicate that World Physical Therapy Day activities have a positive impact on the profession’s profile and standing with both the public and policy makers.

Many WCPT member organisations already have their own national physical therapy days, weeks and months. However, organisations that have no designated day of their own often choose 8th September.

It is up to individual physical therapists and WCPT member organisations to decide what activities and materials they wish to develop.  That way, they can reflect key national priorities and messages. But each year WCPT provides ideas, publicity and support materials.

Saturday, 6 September 2014

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics

A wonderful article that explains briefly and simply the terms that every health professional should know either in the clinical or in the laboratory setting on Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics: A Primer for Orthopaedic Surgeons


Investigation performed at Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts


Friday, 5 September 2014

Auckland Bioengineering Institute

The Auckland Bioengineering Institute (ABI) is a cross-faculty research centre. Our research deals with the application of mathematical and engineering sciences to biology and human physiology. We aim to improve understanding of physiological processes and the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease. Many of our staff have joint appointments in other Faculties, especially with the Department of Engineering Science in the Faculty of Engineering and the Department of Physiology in the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences.

Muscle activation during gait

Visualisation of muscle activation during gait using an anatomically-based model of the lower limbs. Concentric contraction is indicated in yellow, isometric contraction in orange and eccentric contraction in purple respectively. (Research in musculoskeletal modelling at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute)

Wednesday, 3 September 2014

The Histology guide

An amazing Histology guide offered by Leeds University.

What the site should do for you ...

The main aim of this website is to give you a virtual experience of using a microscope rather than just trawling through text and figures, or even a set of powerpoint slides.
The site is divided into topics, which may be worked through in any order. You can see histological slides on the pages and can turn labels on or off to help them identify features. In some cases, there is a section like a 'virtual microscope' - you can scan around a large picture using the mouse and try to identify features. This emulates as closely as possible the experience of using a microscope. We've also recently introduced a new feature, where the students can also zoom in on a slide, having identified an area of interest. Finally, there are several quizzes to try when you feel you have worked through the topic.

Tuesday, 2 September 2014

Charity Tillemann-Dick: Re-learning how to breathe

After giving a wonderful performance in part 1, the soprano Charity Sunshine Tillemann-Dick tells us why breath is life, a fact we take for granted all too often. The soprano tells of re-learning to breathe, one gasp at a time. A recipient of two double lung transplants, she speaks and performs frequently at concerts, conferences and events around the United States.

Dot physio: the new domain name for physical therapists is launched

Dot physio image

A new domain name extension for the world’s physical therapists was launched on 1st September. The extension is .physio, and works in the same way as .com and .org extensions to website domain names.

Physical therapists have already been able to request their own preferred .physio domain names via the registry website and from the beginning of this month domain names are available and the registry process can begin. Dot physio is one of a series of new website name types now being launched for professions around the world. Others include: .doctor .lawyer .engineer .architect and .dentist.

Read more at the WCPT website.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The American Society for Nutrition (>4100 members) is the premier research society dedicated to improving the quality of life through the science of nutrition. The Society fulfills its mission by fostering and enhancing research in animal and human nutrition; providing opportunities for sharing, disseminating, and archiving peer-reviewed nutrition research results (at its annual meeting and in its publications, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and The Journal of Nutrition); fostering quality education and training in nutrition; upholding standards for ethical behavior in research, the protection of human subjects, and the care and treatment of research animals; providing opportunities for fellowship and support among nutritionists; and bringing scientific knowledge to bear on nutrition issues through communication and influence in the public domain.

Drink less for strong bones

How Does Alcohol Harm Your Bones?

When you imbibe too much -- 30 to 60 ml of alcohol every day -- the stomach does not absorb calcium adequately. Alcohol interferes with the pancreas and its absorption of calcium and vitamin D. Alcohol also affects the liver, which is important for activating vitamin D -- which is also important for calcium absorption.

The hormones important to bone health also go awry. Some studies suggest that alcohol decreases estrogen and can lead to irregular periods. As estrogen declines, bone remodeling slows and leads to bone loss. If you're in the menopausal years, this adds to the bone loss that's naturally occurring, says Kaur.

There's an increase in two potentially bone-damaging hormones, cortisol and parathyroid hormone. High levels of cortisol seen in people with alcoholism can decrease bone formation and increase bone breakdown. Chronic alcohol consumption also increases parathyroid hormone, which leaches calcium from the bone, she says.

Also, excess alcohol kills osteoblasts, the bone-making cells. To compound the problem, nutritional deficiencies from heavy drinking can lead to peripheral neuropathy -- nerve damage to hands and feet. And chronic alcohol abuse can affect balance, which can lead to falls.

Monday, 1 September 2014

PAR-Q - The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

The physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) is a self-screening tool that can be used by anyone who is planning to start an exercise program. It is often used by fitness trainers or coaches to determine the safety or possible risk of exercising for an individual based upon their answers to specific health history questions.

The PAR-Q was created by the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the Multidisciplinary Board on Exercise. This form was adopted directly from the ACSM Standards and Guidelines for Health and Fitness Facilities.

The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
Being physically active is very safe for most people. Some people, however, should check with their doctors before they increase their current level of activity. The PAR-Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical activity may be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of activity most suitable for them.

If you answered yes to one or more questions, are older than age 40 and have been inactive or are concerned about your health, consult a physician before taking a fitness test or substantially increasing your physical activity. You should ask for a medical clearance along with information about specific exercise limitations you may have.

In most cases, you will still be able to do any type of activity you want as long as you adhere to some guidelines.

Hormone Blues

A quick reference for recalling the hormones that should be memorized for the MCAT.. But in song form!

If we get views, we may make songs for a few more MCAT topics.

Thanks to Nathan Domek for both helping to record the song and filming/editing the actual video, and Morgan Komure for performing the song with me. 

Special thanks to The Snake, who portrayed a very convincing snake.

Sunday, 31 August 2014

The molecular bases of training adaptation

The Molecular Bases of Training Adaptation

Vernon G. Coffey and John A. Hawley
School of Medical Sciences, Exercise Metabolism Group, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Sports Med 2007; 37 (9): 737-763 REVIEW ARTICLE 0112-1642/07/0009-0737/$44.95/0 / 2007 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Skeletal muscle is a malleable tissue capable of altering the type and amount of protein in response to disruptions to cellular homeostasis. The process of exercise induced adaptation in skeletal muscle involves a multitude of signalling mechanisms initiating replication of specific DNA genetic sequences, enabling subsequent translation of the genetic message and ultimately generating a series of amino acids that form new proteins. The functional consequences of these adaptations are determined by training volume, intensity and frequency, and the half-life of the protein. Moreover, many features of the training adaptation are specific to the type of stimulus, such as the mode of exercise. Prolonged endurance training elicits a variety of metabolic and morphological changes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, fast-to-slow fibre-type transformation and substrate metabolism. In contrast, heavy resistance exercise stimulates synthesis of contractile proteins responsible for muscle hypertrophy and increases in maximal contractile force output. Concomitant with the vastly different functional outcomes induced by these diverse exercise modes, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of adaptation are distinct. With recent advances in technology, it is now possible to study the effects of various training interventions on a variety of signalling proteins and early-response genes in skeletal muscle. Although it cannot presently be claimed that such scientific endeavours have influenced the training practices of elite athletes, these new and exciting technologies have provided insight into how current training techniques result in specific muscular adaptations, and may ultimately provide clues for future and novel training methodologies. Greater knowledge of the mechanisms and interaction of exercise-induced adaptive pathways in skeletal muscle is important for our understanding of the aetiology of disease, maintenance of metabolic and functional capacity with aging, and training for athletic performance. This article highlights the effects of exercise on molecular and genetic mechanisms of training adaptation in skeletal muscle.

Thursday, 28 August 2014

Cheap college textbooks

By compiling prices on textbooks into one, convenient spot, SlugBooks provides students with the cheapest prices available - even if those prices happen to be at the university bookstore. Buying or renting your textbooks has never been easier or cheaper. Just type in the school and the class and voila - the cheapest available textbook prices. We also allow search by ISBN, for those who prefer searching by book. We compare textbook prices between the largest and most trustworthy online new, used, rental and digital textbook sellers, including Amazon and Chegg.

Monday, 18 August 2014

Postoperative orthopaedic rehabilitation protocols

I just came across a wonderful website with many postoperative orthopaedic rehabilitation protocols. Amazing work and useful especially for Physical Therapists that work in hospitals.

I have also found two books that offer a more detailed presentation of port-op orthopaedic treatment guidelines:

1. Treatment and Rehabilitation of Fractures, authors: Stanley Hoppenfeld, Vasantha L. Murthy, publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Written by leading orthopaedists and rehabilitation specialists, this volume presents sequential treatment and rehabilitation plans for fractures of the upper extremity, lower extremity, and spine. The book shows how to treat each fracture--from both an orthopaedic and a rehabilitation standpoint--at each stage of healing.Introductory chapters review the fundamentals of fracture management--bone healing, treatment modalities, biomechanics, assistive devices and adaptive equipment, gait, splints and braces, therapeutic exercise and range of motion, and determining when a fracture is healed. Subsequent chapters focus on management of individual fractures.Each chapter on an individual fracture is organized by weekly postfracture time zones, from the day of injury through twelve weeks. For each time zone, the text discusses bone healing, physical examination, dangers, x-rays, weight bearing, range of motion, strength, functional activities, and gait/ambulation. Specific treatment strategies and rehabilitation protocols are then presented. More than 500 illustrations complement the text.

2. Rehabilitation for the Postsurgical Orthopedic Patient, 3rd Edition, authors: Lisa Maxey & Jim Magnusson, publisher: ELSEVIER Health Sciences.

With detailed descriptions of orthopedic surgeries, Rehabilitation for the Postsurgical Orthopedic Patient, 3rd Edition provides current, evidence-based guidelines to designing effective rehabilitation strategies. Coverage of each condition includes an overview of the orthopedic patient's entire course of treatment from pre- to post-surgery. For each phase of rehabilitation, this book describes the postoperative timeline, the goals, potential complications and precautions, and appropriate therapeutic procedures. New to this edition are a full-color design and new chapters on disc replacement, cartilage replacement, hallux valgus, and transitioning the running athlete. Edited by Lisa Maxey and Jim Magnusson, and with chapters written by both surgeons and physical therapists, Rehabilitation for the Postsurgical Orthopedic Patient provides valuable insights into the use of physical therapy in the rehabilitation process.

Sunday, 17 August 2014

Vertebral artery test

Approximately one‐quarter of ischaemic strokes involve the posterior or vertebrobasilar circulation. Stenosis of the vertebral artery can occur in either its extra‐ or intracranial portions, and may account for up to 20% of posterior circulation ischaemic strokes. Stenotic lesions, particularly at the origin of the vertebral artery, are not uncommon. In an angiographic study of 4748 patients with ischaemic stroke, some degree of proximal extracranial vertebral artery stenosis was seen in 18% of cases on the right and 22.3% on the left. This was the second most common site of stenosis after internal carotid artery stenosis at the carotid bifurcation. Such stenotic lesions are now potentially treatable by endovascular techniques.

In marked contrast with carotid artery stenosis, the optimal management of vertebral artery stenosis has received limited attention, and is poorly understood. This partly reflects difficulties in imaging the vertebral artery adequately, and limited surgical treatment options. Recent improvements in imaging and the arrival of vertebral artery angioplasty, however, have opened up new opportunities for intervention in this disease.

The treatment in such cases is purely medical. However, a Physical Therapist should be aware of this problem, the vertebral artery disease or  vertebrobasilar ischaemia, and should know the basic anatomy, symptoms and assessment test in his everyday practise.

A very nice article on Physiopedia explains these issues clearly.

What to keep in mind:

To test the blood flow in the vertebral artery, one should put the patient on his back and perform an passive extension, followed by a passive rotation of the neck. The rotation should be performed in both directions. The manoeuvre causes a reduction of the lumen at the third division of the vertebral artery, resulting in de decreased blood flow of the intracranial vertebral artery of the contralateral side. It causes an ischemia due to blood loss in the pons and the medulla oblongata of the brain. This results in dizziness, nausea, syncope, dysarthria, dysphagia, and disturbances of the hearing or vision, paresis or paralysis of patients with vertebrobasilar ischaemia.

Below is an alternate vertebral artery test, presented by offers an extended overview of the Vertebrobasilar Occlusion and Vertebral Artery Syndrome, including treatment and management options.

Thursday, 14 August 2014

You Gotta Walk the Walk ... the "Heart Walk"

When it comes to keeping folks heart healthy, our Vanderbilt Heart team takes their job seriously. Add to their knowledge and commitment a little Music City talent, and you've got a catchy song and fun music video on your hands. We hope you enjoy their work, share with your friends and family and take their message about the importance of "walking the walk" to heart!

To learn more about our team and services, visit

Saturday, 9 August 2014

Tuesday, 5 August 2014

Scapular dyskinesis guidelines

Abnormal movement of the shoulder blade (scapula) is known as scapular dyskinesis. This occurs in a variety of shoulder problems. It is an important sign of an underlying shoulder disorder and a guide to shoulder rehabilitation.

Based on PhysioPedia, intervention is aimed at reducing posterior capsule and pectoralis minor restriction and restoring periscapular mm balance through exercises promoting early and increased serratus anterior, lower, and middle trapezius activation while minimizing upper trapezius activity.
  • Manual gr 4 mobilization to reduce posterior capsule tension, cross-body stretch.
  • Manual stretching and soft tissue mobilization to decrease pec minor tension (cadaveric studies imply that a position of 150 degrees elevation with 30 degrees scapular retraction is optimal).
  • Exercises of sidelying forward flexion, external rotation, prone extension, and prone horizontal abduction to strengthen middle and lower trapezius over upper trapezius.
  • Quadruped and variable push-up positions to activate serratus anterior.
Here is a very nice guideline for treating scapular dyskinesis, offered by the Beth Israel Deaconess Center (a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital).

Saturday, 2 August 2014

Scapulohumeral rhythm

In the healthy shoulder, a natural kinematics rhythm/timing exists between glenohumeral ABD and scapulothoracic lateral rotation. After 30 degrees of abduction this rhythm is 2:1, meaning that for each 3 degrees of abduction, 2 degrees occur in the glenohumeral joint and 1 degree occurs in the scapulothoracic joint.

This very nice video and article by Physio-Pedia makes it very clear.

Wednesday, 23 July 2014

Physiopedia: open access research

More and more research is being brought out from behind cost ineffective paywalls and being made available at low cost or for free. Open access journals make it easy for us to access new research and are listed below:

The European Burns Association

European Burns Association

The European Burns Association is a non-profit making organisation for the benefit of the public, to promote burn prevention, to study the prevention of burn injury and all other aspects of burn treatment.

It also serves as a resource to facilitate communication and collaboration between burn care specialists. An exchange of information between the various burn centres in Europe will help us to promote the goal of the EBA.

The purpose of this forum is to bring medical specialists, researchers, paramedics, nurses and other workers in contact to discuss aspects of burn treatment and research.

Please now click on to access the Prevention site.

You can also find here the European Practice Guidelines for Burn Care.